Stained glass is a kind of art that has existed for centuries.
There are many different techniques for making stained-glass, such as glass painting, but the process of creating true stained glass has stayed the same for a long time. To make stained glass, the process starts off with some basic raw materials such as metal oxides to create the colors, lime or lead oxide, soda or potash, and sand or silica. These raw materials are mixed in a large vat in their proper proportions and heated up to around 2500°F. This turns the mix into a molten glass that can be further processed in many ways depending on how you want the final piece of stained glass to come out.
For example, if you want to turn the glass into stained-glass windows, the molten glass is picked up in a lot by a blowpipe and blown into a shape of a cylinder, cut out, and then pressed into sheets and allowed to cool. You can vary this process to give it different effects. If you take a layer of molten colored glass and put a ball of molten white glass inside of it, then blow and flattened it, the color is less concentrated because it will be colored on one side and white on the other, making it flashed glass.
By doing this, you can vary the colors being created for your stained glass. The stained-glass you see in cathedrals is made by taking the molten glass and rolling it into flat sheets. The molten glass is then blown into a box shaped mold known as a Norman slab that is created in this process. You then slice the sides apart and form it into slabs which are a little thinner around the edges then in the center. Most large manufacturers make stained glass in the same techniques, but the mixing process and shaping is done with machinery instead of with hands.
Once the stained-glass is created, these beautiful pieces are turned into gorgeous artwork or stained-glass windows. This is typically done by cutting out a design and then putting the pieces together with the help of lead cames. These are created when strips of grooved lead are soldered onto the glass. This process varies depending on where the artwork will be going when completed.
There are other techniques that are used to hold the stained-glass pieces together, such as a special C meant or other foiled metals. These methods have survived many thousands of years for making stained-glass, and will likely survive for many years to come.